How Does a Phone System Work?

One of the greatest inventions of mankind is the telephone. Over the years, it has evolved into something that provides utmost convenience to its users. It does not only have the function of transmitting your voice from one end to another but it does that in a clear, wireless way.

How Does It Really Work?
Basically, it functions using what they call a PSTN or a Public Switch Telephone Network. This is a particular network that houses the use of numeric switches that allow signal transmission through fiber optic cables and wires. Fiber optic cables are the most flawless form of transmission and also the fastest which enables it to transmit signal even when there are information traffics.

A typical phone system has a receiver. This receiver can pick up signals. It also has a microphone-that mouthpiece with holes in it, that allows data to be converted. It will pass in the communication pathway to be delivered to the person you are calling. This is much the same process of wireless phones too. Only in wireless, they can utilize a satellite dish.

The Evolution Of PSTN
It has slowly evolved over the past few years. The first major change was pushed in the early 1960s. The then analog phone systems were adjusted into T1 carrier structures. Unlike the previous analog systems, this allows the use of 3 KHz of voice transmission signal. It is a wider voice channel but somehow it did not make it quite as big as what the inventors expected it to.

Digital transmission then progressed to the use of fiber optic cables. This kind of transmission cost much less than the analog ones which is why they were immediately embroced by the public.

Telephone Over IP
Now, there is also what we call the Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP. This allows users to call using the telephone but channeling through IP networks. This internet telephone system is now widely used due to its affordability and reliability. Even businesses now employ the use of VoIP.

There is a marked disadvantage despite. In comparison to the usual phones, if there is a power interruption, VoIP functions cease without you use UPS or Uninterruptible power supply. Also, with this type of phone system, you do not have a stationary and fixed address. This can be a problem if you want to call fire department or 911. However, the advantages still do outweigh the disadvantages.

Should I Quit Weed Cold-Turkey Or Cut Down Gradually?

A common question people often ask when they first quit weed, is “Should I quit weed cold turkey or cut down slowly?”

Look at it this way; the two contrasting options when quitting weed are obvious:

  • Stop smoking weed cold turkey
  • Stop smoking weed slowly or cut down gradually

Each has advantages, however one of them is clearly the right way to go about quitting weed. Let’s look at both strategies to determine which one will cause you the least discomfort in your efforts to quit.

Quitting Weed Cold Turkey

To stop smoking weed cold turkey means that one day you simply stop, and never look back. The plan is to never smoke again and people are satisfied to take on all withdrawals at once, knowing that it is only going to be once.

Like they say: Do it one time, and do it properly.

It is very easy to plan to quit cold turkey, although you need to make a plan for the onset of withdrawals and decreased stress tolerance. You may not be the nicest person in this time.

  • PROS: Less planning
  • CONS: More stressful (if you don’t know what you are doing!)

Quitting Marijuana Gradually

To slowly cut back is the opposite. You hope to experience more bearable withdrawals for a longer time, this way the hurdle of quitting altogether seems lowered and you have more chance of success in the long run – that’s the thinking behind it anyway.

  • PROS: More planning and discipline
  • CONS: Less stressful, although it may not work

Which Method Works For Often For More People?

Although different people employ different strategies to cope with marijuana addiction, the fact is that one of these ways works far more often than the other – on almost every person.

Believe it or not, when it comes to stopping a marijuana addiction, cold turkey is the answer.

Cold turkey is definite. There is not a lot to contemplate after you have passed your ‘quitting date’.

Quitting gradually may seem easier at the beginning (obviously – you haven’t even quit yet) but many people fail in the long run when they try this tactic. It’s almost a trap!

Don’t cigarette smokers cut back slowly to help them quit?

Yes they do, although it would be wise of you not compare a marijuana addiction to a nicotine addiction. Chemicals in nicotine are purely physical addictions, fueling a physical need in the consumer.

Marijuana’s strength and cravings lie mainly in the psychological addictions it creates in users. This will keep you coming back to weed, and this is what you will need to deal with primarily in order to quit. Do yourself a good deed, quit weed cold turkey.

In-Depth Analysis of Web Designing

Over the past few years, the web designing has changed drastically. Gone are the days, when static and very dull websites were in use. Off late, the web technology has gained momentum and now every business, whether big or small, requires very interactive websites.

What are interactive websites? These are basically the dynamic websites which provide amazing browsing experience to the users. In these websites, the web pages are fetched directly from the server. Let me discuss what you should keep in mind while designing a website.


The most important web page of your website is the homepage. Whenever anyone types the domain of your website, then this page will get opened up. It is very important that this page will be designed in the proper manner so that the visitors get more memorable experience. What should you put on the website? Nowadays, the info-graphics are considered as the most engaging thing. These are basically the messages, carved on the banners in order to get the glance of the visitors. The banners and taglines should remain in sync with the theme of the business. Any mismatch will land you in big trouble.

Logo & Brief Overview of the Company

The logo, as well as overview of the company, helps in infusing confidence in the buyers. Though it is considered as a very simple job, yet these small things influence the mind of the buyers to the greater extent.


Nowadays, every website contains a huge array of products. So, proper navigation is very important in this in order to move from one category to another. The linking should properly be provided so that users don’t find any difficulty during navigation.

Font family, text style and color combinations

Though the standard has already been defined related to the font family, yet the designers should offer much attention to the font size, styles and color combinations. These things help in providing amazing browsing experience to visitors.

Enquiry/ Contact Form

This is the most important thing which is related to the website. Using inquiry form, the visitors have the option to get the details of your products. This is a gateway to start communication. In most of the cases, contact form and enquiry form serve the same purpose.

Search Option

It is very important to provide the search option. The reason being every e-commerce website contains hundreds of items. The search box helps in providing the exact product to the buyers. Most of the people don’t have much time to scroll down and to navigate from one web page to other. So, this box saves their time.

These are certain things which are mandatory features of any website. If your website lacks in these features, then this will eventually affect your business. So, you should power your web with such features, if you want to offer the amazing experience to visitors.

Advanced French – How To Answer The Telephone In French

Using the telephone in French can be difficult because it is not always easy to understand what is being said. For speakers of advanced French, here are some useful tips and common phrases.

1. Answering the telephone.

Allô is the most way to answer a personal call. In an office or business setting, you could say something like this:

Librairie Bertrand, Christiane à l’appareil. (Bertrand Bookstore, Christiane speaking.)

Banque de Lyons, Service à la clientele, Jacques Lambert à l’appareil, Comment puis-je vous aider? (Banque de Lyons, Customer service, Jacques Lambert speaking. How can I help you?)

Clinique dentaire du Dr Schmidt, bonjour. (Dr Schmidt’s dental clinic)

Notice how French uses à l’appareil for the English “speaking”

2. Introducing oneself, “My name is…”

Bonjour, ici Johanne Ledoux de la Clinique médicale de la Cité. (Hello, this is Johanne Ledoux, calling from the La Cité medical clinic.)

Bonjour, je m’appelle…. (Hello, my name is…)

3. Asking to speak to someone.

Je voudrais parler à Monsieur, Madame…. (I wish to speak to…)

J’aimerais parler à Madame Lavigne. (I would like to speak to Madame Lavigne.)

4. Confirming yourself. “Speaking”, “This is he / she”.

C’est moi-même.

5. How to ask who is calling for someone else.

C’est de la part de qui? (Who may I ask is calling?)

Do not say Qui appelle? This sounds rather rude in French.

6. How to express the reason for calling.

C’est au sujet de votre compte en souffrance. (I’m calling about your overdue account.)

Je vous appelle de la part du docteur Gouin. (I’m calling on behalf of Dr. Gouin.)

7. Asking the caller to wait. “Hang on”, “Hold the line”.

Ne quittez pas. Une seconde.

8. How to put someone on hold.

Ne quittez pas. Je vous mets en garde.

9. Taking a message.

M. Pierre n’est pas là . Voulez-vous laisser un message? (Mr. Pierre is not in. Would you like to leave a message?)

Madame Goyer est en reunion. Je vous transfère dans sa boîte vocale. (Ms Gouin is in a meeting. I’ll transfer you to her voicemail.)

10. Transferring a call.

Ne quittez pas. Je vous transfère.

11. Voice mail messages.

Here is a typical personal voicemail or answering machine message.

Bonjour, vous avez joint la boîte vocale de Jany Pellerin. Malheureusement, je ne peux répondre à votre appel. Laissez-moi un message avec la date et l’heure de votre appel et je vais communiquer avec vous dans le plus bref délai.

(Hello, you have the voicemail for Jany Pellerin. Unfortunately, I am unable to take your call. Leave a message with the date and time of your call and I will get back to you soon.)

Here is an example of a business message:

Vous avez joint le bureau du docteur Colette Mercier. Nos heures de bureau sont de 8 heures à 16 heures du lundi au vendredi. Veuillez me laisser un message et je vous rappellerai dans le plus bref délai. (You have reached the office of Dr. Colette Mercier. Our office is open from 8 am to 4 pm Monday through Friday. Please leave me a message, and I will get back to you soon.)

12. In the business world, you will often have to deal with telephone menus. Here are some typical messages:

For service in English, press 1. Pour le service en français, faites le 2. Para comunicarse en castellano, marque el 3.

Pour le département des achats, faites le 2. Pour la comptabilité, appuyez sur le 4. Pour parler avec un agent, faites le 9. Pour entendre ce message de nouveau, faites le 0. (For Purchasing, press 2. For Accounting, press 4. To speak with an agent, press 9. To hear this message again, press 0.)

Si vous connaissez le numéro du poste de la personne à qui vous voulez parler, entrez-le maintenant suivi du dièse. Sinon, restez en ligne et on vous répondra sous peu. (If you know the extension of the person you wish to speak to, enter it followed by the pound sign. Otherwise, wait and you will be answered shortly.)